# TOP-PASS: A processing algorithm to reduce 2D PASS acquisition time

M. C. Davis, K. M. Shookman, J. D. Sillaman, P. J. Grandinetti

066 - *J. Magn. Reson.*, **210**, 51-58 (2011).

# Abstract

A slow speed MAS spectrum contains a pattern of spinning sideband resonances separated by integer multiples of the rotor frequency and centered about an isotropic frequency. The 2D signal acquired in a two-dimensional Phase Adjusted Spinning Sideband (PASS) experiment correlates this slow speed MAS spectrum, obtained in the direct dimension, to an indirect dimension spectrum containing the same pattern of spinning sideband resonances centered about a frequency of zero. An affine transformation is used to convert the acquired 2D PASS signal into a 2D signal that correlates a spectrum of pure isotropic frequencies to a spectrum of spinning sideband resonances with no isotropic frequency contributions. The conventional affine transform applied to 2D PASS consists of an active shear of the signal parallel to the indirect time domain coordinate followed by a passive scaling of the indirect time domain coordinate. Here we show that an alternative affine transform, previously employed in the Two-dimensional One Pulse (TOP) experiment, can be employed to create the same 2D signal correlation with an enhanced spectral width in the anisotropic (spinning sideband) dimension. This enhancement can provide a significant reduction in the minimum experiment time required for a 2D PASS experiment, particularly for spectra where the individual spinning sideband patterns are dispersed over a wider spectral range than the isotropic resonance frequencies. The TOP processing consists of an active shear of the signal parallel to the direct time domain, followed by an active shear of the signal parallel to the new indirect time domain coordinate followed by a passive scaling of the new direct time domain coordinate. A theoretical description of the affine transformation in the context of 2D PASS is given along with illustrative examples of $^{29}$Si in Clinoenstatite and $^{13}$C in {\small L}-Histidine.

## Notes

In an updated edition of our article (16 November 2012), an unnecessary scaling factor in Eqs. (13) and (22) was eliminated

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