Phase incremented echo train acquisition in NMR spectroscopy

Phase incremented echo train acquisition in NMR spectroscopy

J. H. Baltisberger, B. J. Walder, E. G. Keeler, D. C. Kaseman, K. J. Sanders, and P. J. Grandinetti
068 - J. Chem. Phys.: 136 , 211104-1-4 (2012)


We present an improved and general approach for implementing Echo Train Acquisition (ETA) in magnetic resonance spectroscopy, particularly where the conventional approach of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) acquisition would produce numerous experimental artifacts. Generally, adding ETA to any $N$-dimensional experiment creates an $N+1$ dimensional experiment, with an additional dimension associated with the echo count, $n$, or an evolution time that is an integer multiple of the spacing between echo maxima. Here we present a modified approach, called Phase Incremented Echo Train Acquisition (PIETA), where the phase of the mixing pulse and every other refocusing pulse, $\phi_P$, is incremented as a single variable, creating an additional phase dimension in what becomes an $N+2$ dimensional experiment. A Fourier transform with respect to the PIETA phase, ${\phi_P}$, converts the $\phi_P$ dimension into a $\Delta p$ dimension where desired signals can be easily separated from undesired coherence transfer pathway signals, thereby avoiding cumbersome or intractable phase cycling schemes where the receiver phase must follow a master equation. This simple modification eliminates numerous artifacts present in NMR experiments employing CPMG acquisition and allows ``single-scan'' measurements of transverse relaxation and $J$-couplings. Additionally, unlike CPMG, we show how PIETA can be appended to experiments with phase modulated signals after the mixing pulse.

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